This post was written in response to a question by TheScientificParent.org reader Kate.
It has been every parent’s worst nightmare for generations – finding their infant dead suddenly and unexpectedly. As a father of two, I remember the sleepless nights alternating between crying infants and complete silence, wondering if my boys were actually breathing. The fear is palpable. As a pediatrician who has had to pronounce infants dead and as a member of the team in my county that reviews infant deaths, I have far too often seen the grief and confusion when that fear becomes a reality.
For centuries we’ve struggled to understand the cause of, and even define what Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is. Over the years, the fear SIDS (sometimes known as cot death or crib death) has spawned multiple attempts by researchers and device makers to develop products to prevent SIDS – including apnea monitors, sleep positioners, or wedges. None of these interventions have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of SIDS. But what has been shown to reduce an infant’s risk of SIDS is very simple and many parents aren’t aware of it.
Since a consensus conference in 1991, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has been defined as a death of an infant under one year of age that cannot be explained after a thorough investigation which includes an autopsy, a scene investigation, and a review of the medical and social histories. SIDS is one type of Sudden and Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID). The reasons why the authorities need to investigate when an infant dies unexpectedly include ensuring no foul play was involved or whether or not a preventable genetic condition (like certain heart arrhythmias) occurred that impact future deaths in a family.
The majority of infants who die from SIDS have underlying risk factors that can be addressed to reduce the risk of death. Some children are likely born with intrinsic and undetected brain stem abnormalities that make them more susceptible to sudden death and despite risk factor modification, these infants still may die. Some researchers are looking into the role the inner ear plays in SIDS, but the research so far is in its preliminary stages. Unfortunately for many families, approximately 5% of SIDS cases involve otherwise healthy infants with no underlying risk factors. I’m going to focus on the 95% in this post because the majority of these deaths can be prevented.
Improved death scene investigations over the past 2 decades have shown us that most SUIDs are a result of infants being placed in unsafe sleep positions. Improved examinations by death investigators and Child Fatality Review Teams have shown that for most infants who die of SIDS and a vast majority of infants who die of asphyxiation (also known as suffocation) or undetermined causes are found in an unsafe sleep position. The Back to Sleep campaign started in the 1990s after studies showed that infants placed on their back to sleep had a reduced risk of dying from SIDS. Between 1992 and 2001 the Back to Sleep campaign reduced the risk of SIDS by over 50%.
Unfortunately one of the worst sleep environments for a child is to co-sleep in an adult bed, or more specifically co-bed. We’ve designed adult beds to be comfy and welcoming for us at the end of a hard day, with pillows, blankets and soft mattresses, but these are all major asphyxiation risks for an infant not old enough to roll over or lift their head. Asphyxia while co-bedding can occur from 3 primary mechanisms – the parent rolling over on the child and restricting breathing, the child rolling or being rolled between the bed and a wall, or a child suffocating on soft bedding like blankets or pillows.
But these methods are not how most high-risk infants who asphyxiate while co-bedding die: Most die from carbon dioxide poisoning, by regularly re-breathing in their own or their parents exhaled breath. Any object near the mouth and nose of an infant can create an air pocket in which the exhaled air gets trapped. The infant then re-breathes air with a higher concentration of carbon dioxide. As the carbon dioxide level increases in the bloodstream and oxygen levels decrease, the infant is more likely to stop breathing and die.
These mechanisms for death can also occur in an adult bed without an adult and on other surfaces with an adult-like a couch. It is very easy for an infant to roll off the chest of a sleeping adult and get wedged between the parent and the side of the couch.
Due to an increase in the number of cases of Accidental Strangulation and Suffocation in Bed (ASSB), which have quadrupled from 1984-2004, the number of total infant deaths has stopped decreasing since 1998 despite the drop in SIDS cases. The number of deaths in unsafe environments, like co-bedding in adult beds, is staggering. A report out of Michigan in 2011 demonstrated that 83% of their infant deaths were a result of sleep related asphyxiation. Even looking only at SIDS cases, well designed epidemiological studies have demonstrated there is an increased risk of SIDS from co-bedding by itself after controlling for other risk factors, such as family history and smoking.
Despite the overwhelming body of research showing the deadly risks of co-bedding, many lactation consultants and some prominent anthropologists strongly believe co-bedding reduces the risk of death and increases the length of breastfeeding. While co-bedding may increase the length of breastfeeding and breastfeeding has been shown to independently reduce an infant’s risk of SIDS, the risks of sleeping in an adult bed outweigh the benefits gained by breastfeeding. Many co-bedding proponents claim that so long as the parent removes soft objects or strangulation risks from the bed (such as excessive throw pillows, heavy blankets or pillows and blankets with tassels) that co-bedding is safe. Unfortunately, these individuals have failed to understand the bigger picture and the lessons learned from Child Fatality Review.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has several recommendations for parents who want to reduce their infant’s risk of SIDS and SUIDs, in addition to placing your infant on their back to sleep in a crib or bassinet of their own:
- Sleeping on a firm surface and avoiding soft objects in the crib
- Avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke
- Room sharing without bed-sharing (place the bassinette next to the adult bed)
The research is clear: Very few infants die alone, on their back, and in a safe crib, and the majority of these deaths are preventable. I understand why some parents may want to co-bed or find themselves unintentionally co-bedding. Co-bedding can make parents feel closer to their infant, it also may make it easier for some parents to extend breastfeeding during the night and to get a little extra sleep. As a parent, I understand the exhaustion parents feel in the first weeks and months of life, and I’m not trivializing that, but the research is clear: Very few infants die alone, on their back, and in a safe crib, and the majority of these deaths are preventable.
For more information on safe sleep go to:
- Safe to Sleep: Public Education Campaign.
- Cribs for Kids: Helping Every Baby Sleep Safer.
- First Candle: Helping Babies Survive and Thrive.
- Reduce the Risk of SIDS.
- Center for Infant & Child Loss Safe Sleep Video
- Safe to Sleep: Public Education Campaign. Led by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Cribs for Kids: Helping Every Baby Sleep Safer. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- First Candle: Helping Babies Survive and Thrive. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Reduce the Risk of SIDS. Healthy Children,Org – by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Center for Infant & Child Loss Safe Sleep Video. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Leslie Waghorn. Has A Seattle Doctor Found The Cause of SIDS? The Scientific Parent.
- Willinger, M. James, LS. Catz, C. Defining The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Deliberations of an Expert Panel Convened by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Pediatric Pathology. 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Ostfeld, B., et al. Concurrent Risks in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. American Academy of Pediatrics. Vol. 125 No. 3 March 1, 2010
pp. 447 -453 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-0038). Accessed 06/22/2015.
- The National Center for the Review and Prevention of Child Deaths. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Laughlin, J., et al. Prevention and Management of Positional Skull Deformities in Infants. American Academy of Pediatrics. Vol. 128 No. 6 December 1, 2011 pp. 1236 -1241 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2220). Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Kemp J.S., et al. Unintentional Suffocation by Rebreathing: A Death Scene and Physiologic Investigation of a Possible Cause of Sudden Infant Death. Journal of Pediatrics. 1993 Jun;122(6):874-80. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Shapiro-Mendoza, C.K., et al. US Infant Mortality Trends Attributable to Accidental Suffocation and Strangulation in Bed From 1984 Through 2004: Are Rates Increasing? American Academy of Pediatrics. Vol. 123 No. 2 February 1, 2009, pp. 533 -539. (doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3746) . Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Michigan Child Death State Advisory Team Tenth Annual Executive Report. 2011. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- Carpenter, R., et al. Bed Sharing When Parents Do Not Smoke: Is There A Risk Of SIDS? AN Individual Level Analysis of Five Major Case – Control Studies. Paediatrics. Volume 3, Issue 5. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002299 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299. Accessed 06/22/2015.
- SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment. American Academy of Pediatrics. Vol. 128 No. 5, pp. 1030 -1039. November 1, 2011 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2284). Accessed 06/22/2015.
Author: Scott Krugman, MD, MS, FAAP
Originally posted at https://www.thescientificparent.org/crib-notes-is-cosleeping-really-unsafe/
The Top 10 G-Rated Movies of All Time: A Cinematic Journey for All Ages
G-rated films are magical. They appeal to children and have a timeless charm that can captivate audiences of all ages.
From breathtaking animation to heartfelt storytelling, G-rated movies uniquely evoke emotions and leave a lasting impression.
We’ve gathered a list of the top 10 G-rated movies that have stood the test of time and continue entertaining viewers worldwide, according to IMDB.
Top 10 G-Rated Movies of All-Time
- The Lion King (1994)
At the top of our list is Disney’s “The Lion King.” This animated masterpiece has captured the hearts of millions. The film’s memorable characters, powerful soundtrack, and the gripping story will have you humming “Hakuna Matata” long after the credits roll.
- Toy Story (1995)
The groundbreaking “Toy Story” was Pixar’s first feature film and the first entirely computer-animated movie. This heartwarming tale of friendship between toys Woody and Buzz Lightyear is an engaging adventure filled with humor, emotion, and unforgettable moments that still resonate with audiences today.
- The Wizard of Oz (1939)
A classic film transcending generations, “The Wizard of Oz” is a timeless tale of friendship, courage, and the power of imagination. With its iconic songs, whimsical characters, and vibrant Technicolor world, this magical journey to the land of Oz will forever hold a special place in the hearts of movie lovers.
- Mary Poppins (1964)
Julie Andrews’ magical performance as Mary Poppins has delighted audiences for decades. With its memorable songs like “Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious” and “A Spoonful of Sugar” and whimsical adventures, the musical shows that anything is possible with a little imagination.
- The Sound of Music (1965)
This beloved musical, set against the breathtaking backdrop of the Austrian Alps, follows the heartwarming story of the von Trapp family and their governess, Maria. “The Sound of Music” offers a perfect blend of unforgettable songs, captivating performances, and an inspiring tale of love and resilience during a time of turmoil.
- Beauty and the Beast (1991)
Disney’s “Beauty and the Beast” is a visually stunning masterpiece with unforgettable songs and mesmerizing animation. The film’s timeless story of love, understanding, and redemption has captivated audiences for decades.
- The Little Mermaid (1989)
“The Little Mermaid” is a Disney classic that inspires viewers to explore new worlds and follow their dreams. The film’s catchy tunes, lovable characters, and captivating animation tell the story of Ariel, a curious and free-spirited mermaid who dreams of life on land.
- Aladdin (1992)
Disney’s “Aladdin” is an enchanting film that takes viewers on a thrilling magic carpet ride through the mystical city of Agrabah. The film’s memorable characters, witty humor, and iconic soundtrack have made it a beloved classic that still manages to charm audiences with its tale of love, adventure, and the power of true friendship
- Finding Nemo (2003)
Pixar’s “Finding Nemo” is a heartwarming tale of a father’s unwavering love for his son. This visually stunning underwater adventure, filled with lovable characters and important life lessons, showcases the importance of family, determination, and the bonds that connect us all.
- Monsters, Inc. (2001)
Rounding off our list is another Pixar gem, “Monsters, Inc.” This imaginative film takes us into the world of monsters, where best friends Mike and Sulley discover that laughter is more powerful than fear. With its clever humor, engaging story, and endearing characters, “Monsters, Inc.” is a true testament to the power of friendship and creativity.
G-rated movies are beloved by audiences of all ages for their timeless stories and unforgettable characters. These top 10 G-rated movies have left an indelible mark on the hearts of movie lovers worldwide and continue to be cherished for generations to come.
What Are The Best Colors For Family Pictures Outside?
Picture this: It’s a bright summer day, you’re wearing your best clothes, and your family has gathered together outside for some pictures. Now, what color is best to wear?
This post is meant to give you an idea of the best colors for family pictures outside. It can be tricky trying to figure out what colors will best show the best family pictures outside. Because there are so many different colors, it can be difficult to find out what will best show off your best features.
This is a hard question because every person has his or her best color for photos, which means that everyone should come up with their best colors for pictures outside.
Best colors for outside family pictures.
A color scheme for family photos that works in any season is navy, cream, and tan, which are timeless and work well in any weather. The cream and navy colors go well with the spring pastels and bright greens. They also look good with the green grass and trees in a park.
When it comes to color schemes, most of them have one or two bright colors mixed with one or two “neutral” colors. The outfit’s main color is coral. Navy, gray, white, and other neutral colors help to ground and balance the bright coral in this outfit. They also help to make the coral look less bright.
Wine, cream, and gold
If you want to take a holiday family picture, this color scheme will work well. When we think about holiday family photos, the colors red and green are often the first things that come to mind. For pictures of Christmas, go to the site. However, if you do plan to use them, a wine, cream, and gold color scheme will put you right in the Christmas spirit.
Pink, tan, and cream
The colors that people like the most are pink, cream, and tan. Photos of the family on the beach are good for. Here’s what you should wear on a trip with your family: for It is very simple and monochromatic. The soft, pale pink color of this family set is almost like a neutral. There are a lot of shades of tan and cream.
It’s a good idea to use peach, blue, and denim in your family photos in the springtime. Peach goes well with the pastel-colored flowers that bloom in Northeast Ohio in the spring. As a neutral, jeans keep the outfit from becoming too bright with the new spring colors.
This blue, white, red, and blue color scheme feels right for a Fourth of July family picture. Because red is so attention-grabbing, it can be hard to work within photos because of this. I think it’s great for making eye-catching family portraits. If you want to use red in your color scheme, think about where your meeting will be. It would be best if the backdrop was neutral-colored, like at the beach or in city downtown. This color scheme is why even though there is a lot of greenery, your picture might have a Christmas feel.
Things to consider when picking the best color of clothes for family photos
As soon as you figure out which colors are best for the season, narrow them down to just a few based on where the shoot is taking place.
When it comes to urban themes, bright colors work well, but they don’t look good in a field or with trees and grass around them.
In the same way, don’t use pale pastels when you’re in front of a light background, such as the wall of a building or structure. This goes for dark backgrounds, too.
The colors of your home:
Look at the colors in the place where the photos will be shown. If all you see are muted and soft colors, there’s no need to be bold with your clothes. There is no doubt that the opposite is true, too.
The skin tone:
They look best with warm colors like brown and yellow and warm shades of red and orange and brown and yellow and orange and reddish-purple and reddish-purple and cream.
If you want to look good, don’t wear jewel tones or icy shades. Make sure you don’t wear orange and red near your skin.
Top tips to get the colors right for family pictures!
A color that doesn’t match one of your family members’ skin tones but you still want to stay in your chosen palette? Choose a top and pair it with a bottom from your chosen palette.
Consider looking at store displays for ideas. Typically, the windows show off the season’s most fashionable clothes, as well as the best colors in the clothes.
In order to add a little color to your neutral palette, have one member of the family wear a brighter shade, or even a different shade.
It’s important not to go overboard with your desire to add color.
With different textures and accessories, like belts and scarves, you can make the look even more interesting.
Instead of matching, try to add something to each other. This isn’t just true for colors, but also for different styles of clothes. So, if most of you are wearing jeans, add a dress or two to make things even.
As parents, it is important to choose clothes that are not only in the right colors but also the most comfortable. So you won’t have to deal with kids who are fidgety and angry when they want to undress.
When you are choosing the best colors for family pictures outside, it is best to look at what other people are wearing in the photographs. You do not want your group to look bland or have an entirely different color scheme from everyone else in the photos. This could cause confusion over who belongs with whom.
If you have a hard time picking the best colors for family pictures outside, maybe even the best colors for family photos in general take a look at the best color combinations for group photos.
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