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When Are Frequent Ilnesses Signs of a Compromised Immune System

sick child immune system

It’s cold and flu season and around this time of year I start seeing parents in my office concerned that their child is “always sick,” and that there must be something wrong with their child’s immune system or that they have a “low immune system.” I don’t doubt these parents when they say that their kids are always sick. As I mentioned in a previous post:

“The average child experiences between 6-10 viral upper respiratory infections a year. The average duration of each cold is 7-14 days. That means, on average, infants and toddlers can be sick for 4-6 months each year. Statistically, this means that 50% of children will be sick more than this. Parents, you’re not imagining things when you think your kids are sick all the time. Sometimes they are, and that’s not abnormal.”

So if it’s normal for kids to be almost continually sick this time of year, when should parents worry that their child’s immune system may not be working as well as it should?

There are two main types of immune deficiencies. The first type is secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies. These are the most common. This type of immune deficiency is caused when your child is fighting another illness like cancer, HIV, or is taking certain medications that can suppress the immune system. We’re not going to talk about these today. The second type is primary immunodeficiencies (PID), which are far more rare and genetic (meaning we’re born with them). These are the disorders that parents say they’re most concerned about when they tell me their child is always sick.

PIDs, especially the more severe forms, is quite rare in the general population. There are roughly 180 distinct PIDs, however, as a category, only about 0.0087% of the population has any one of those 180 PIDs. That’s about one out of 1,200 people, but this changes dramatically based upon the type of PID as some are much rarer than others.

Primary immune deficiencies arise when parts of the immune system are not being produced, or are not functioning appropriately. This leaves holes in the normal defense system, making the body more susceptible to infections. Depending upon where and to what degree the defect occurs, the impact can range from mild to very severe.

As I mentioned before, PIDs are genetic, but that doesn’t mean that they’re all inherited or passed from parent-to-child. Some may arise from spontaneous gene mutations with no family history at all. Some appear early in infancy with severe life-threatening infections, whereas others are very subtle and go undetected until adulthood.

So when should you worry that your child’s immune system is deficient? Unfortunately, there’s no easy answer, but there are some indicators in the first years of life that your child needs to be evaluated by a pediatric allergist/immunologist:

  • Positive Newborn Screening: As of this writing, 32 states screen for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency, which is an exceptionally rare condition that can cause death by one year of age from severe illness. If your baby’s newborn screening is positive for this, you need to see a pediatric immunologist immediately.
  • Family History: If you or if certain blood relatives have been diagnosed with a PID or receive immunoglobulin replacement therapy.
  • Failure to Thrive: If your baby fails to gain weight, meet their milestones, suffers from severe skin rashes, recurrent diarrhea, and frequent or invasive infections like sepsis or pneumonia.
  • Opportunistic Infections: If your infant or child has suffered from recurrent opportunistic infections, such as fungal infections like thrush, that have affected more than just their tongue or mouth, this is cause for concern.
  • Frequent Use of Antibiotics: If your infant or child has required multiple courses of antibiotics each year for confirmed infections such as pneumonia (diagnosed by chest x-ray), ear infections requiring placement of ear tubes, or sinus infections that will not resolve on their own.
  • Confirmed Comorbidities: When two conditions tend to occur together we call these conditions “comorbid”. Some conditions, such as DiGeorge syndrome, are known to be comorbid with PIDs.

Most of these warning signs aren’t subtle, and statistically speaking PIDs are incredibly rare. As a board-certified pediatric allergist/immunologist, I have received specialized training to identify children with possible PIDs, but sometimes a child with one of these conditions won’t have any of these warning signs. Sometimes the parents bring them in because their gut tells them that something isn’t quite right, and as the parents tell me more about their child’s issues my radar starts to go off. What are those signs?

  • Infections that require treatment with intravenous antibiotics, especially more than once.
  • Infections that occur in unusual sites, like internal organs, gums or skin abscesses (non-MRSA, or antibiotic-resistant staph, which is a common infection).
  • Infections with unusual organisms, which require appropriate cultures from the site of infection.
  • Infections of unusual frequency. While the average child has between 6-10 upper respiratory infections each year, if that number is closer to 20, or if it regularly takes more than three weeks to recover from each infection, I start to get concerned.

When I speak with concerned parents many of them understandably want to tell me everything, concerned that a small detail could be key in properly diagnosing their child. They’re often frustrated when I only ask about certain issues or don’t give some symptoms as much weight as the parents have. As an immunologist, I am extremely picky when taking a history. What I need to see are lab results and confirmed diagnoses.

I know that antibiotics are unfortunately often overprescribed for routine viral infections, so when a parent tells me that their child has been on antibiotics six times this year, I can’t give that information much weight unless it’s backed up with other historical details or test results confirming frequent bacterial infections. Many walk-in clinics or emergency rooms may diagnose a child with pneumonia just by listening to their lungs, but that doesn’t actually confirm pneumonia. What I need to see are the chest x-rays that are consistent with the diagnosis. I need to know that your doctor recorded a fever when they saw your child for an ear infection and that your child was in discomfort, not just that the eardrum was red (especially if they weren’t complaining about it beforehand). If your child has recurrent skin abscesses, I need to see the results from the cultured bacteria to determine if the bacteria are consistent with the type of bacteria we see when the immune system isn’t functioning.

I know this is frustrating for parents, especially if the necessary some of these steps haven’t been taken before they arrive at my office. Testing for PIDs can be invasive, uncomfortable and stressful for children, and the last thing I would want to do is to subject any child to those tests if it wasn’t necessary. So before I can tell if your child requires further testing, I need you to arm me with as much data as possible.

I’m rarely able to give parents a diagnosis or next steps the first time we meet. It takes time to carefully review all of the concerns and then thoughtful consideration about if and what testing should be performed. Sometimes we check labs just to help rule out a scary diagnosis and provide reassurance to parents. Sometimes we decide to perform watchful waiting, knowing that some kids just have bad luck and suffer from a few severe infections in a row. Again, while blood draws and other tests may be no big deal for most adults, for kids they can be terrifying and painful. As a father of two, the last thing I’d want is for my own children to go through that unless it was necessary.

When I tell concerned parents that their child’s medical history and symptoms likely aren’t indicative of a primary immune deficiency, what are some of the other reasons their child is so sick? Before we worry about PIDs we need to first consider the secondary causes of frequent infections. Are they in daycare or have siblings in school? If so, then they are exposed to tons of ‘normal’ infections. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the home or car, underlying chronic health conditions such as allergies, asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, kidney disease, etc. can all lead to increased infections. Additionally, the waiting rooms in hospitals and doctor’s offices are cesspools! People are usually there because they’re sick; every surface they touch is a reservoir of germs. Door handles, chair armrests, magazine covers, the pen you use to check-in are all covered in germs. If your child is at the doctor’s office being treated for one infection then quickly develops another infection, it is likely due to exposure to all the germs in health care facilities. I’ve seen countless kids develop vomiting/diarrhea days after being treated by their doctor for a respiratory illness.

If you have concerns about your child’s health it’s always OK to call your child’s doctor to talk through your concerns and see if a referral to a pediatric allergist/immunologist is appropriate. Hopefully, this post puts your mind at ease or at the very least arms you with more information.


Originally posted at by Dr. Dave Stuckus, MD

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The Top 10 G-Rated Movies of All Time: A Cinematic Journey for All Ages

G-Rated Movies - A family watching a movie and eating popcorn in the furniture at home.

G-rated films are magical. They appeal to children and have a timeless charm that can captivate audiences of all ages.

From breathtaking animation to heartfelt storytelling, G-rated movies uniquely evoke emotions and leave a lasting impression.

We’ve gathered a list of the top 10 G-rated movies that have stood the test of time and continue entertaining viewers worldwide, according to IMDB.

Top 10 G-Rated Movies of All-Time

  1. The Lion King (1994)

At the top of our list is Disney’s “The Lion King.” This animated masterpiece has captured the hearts of millions. The film’s memorable characters, powerful soundtrack, and the gripping story will have you humming “Hakuna Matata” long after the credits roll.

  1. Toy Story (1995)

The groundbreaking “Toy Story” was Pixar’s first feature film and the first entirely computer-animated movie. This heartwarming tale of friendship between toys Woody and Buzz Lightyear is an engaging adventure filled with humor, emotion, and unforgettable moments that still resonate with audiences today.

  1. The Wizard of Oz (1939)

A classic film transcending generations, “The Wizard of Oz” is a timeless tale of friendship, courage, and the power of imagination. With its iconic songs, whimsical characters, and vibrant Technicolor world, this magical journey to the land of Oz will forever hold a special place in the hearts of movie lovers.

  1. Mary Poppins (1964)

Julie Andrews’ magical performance as Mary Poppins has delighted audiences for decades. With its memorable songs like “Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious” and “A Spoonful of Sugar” and whimsical adventures, the musical shows that anything is possible with a little imagination.

  1. The Sound of Music (1965)

This beloved musical, set against the breathtaking backdrop of the Austrian Alps, follows the heartwarming story of the von Trapp family and their governess, Maria. “The Sound of Music” offers a perfect blend of unforgettable songs, captivating performances, and an inspiring tale of love and resilience during a time of turmoil.

  1. Beauty and the Beast (1991)

Disney’s “Beauty and the Beast” is a visually stunning masterpiece with unforgettable songs and mesmerizing animation. The film’s timeless story of love, understanding, and redemption has captivated audiences for decades.

  1. The Little Mermaid (1989)

“The Little Mermaid” is a Disney classic that inspires viewers to explore new worlds and follow their dreams. The film’s catchy tunes, lovable characters, and captivating animation tell the story of Ariel, a curious and free-spirited mermaid who dreams of life on land.

  1. Aladdin (1992)

Disney’s “Aladdin” is an enchanting film that takes viewers on a thrilling magic carpet ride through the mystical city of Agrabah. The film’s memorable characters, witty humor, and iconic soundtrack have made it a beloved classic that still manages to charm audiences with its tale of love, adventure, and the power of true friendship

  1. Finding Nemo (2003)

Pixar’s “Finding Nemo” is a heartwarming tale of a father’s unwavering love for his son. This visually stunning underwater adventure, filled with lovable characters and important life lessons, showcases the importance of family, determination, and the bonds that connect us all.

  1. Monsters, Inc. (2001)

Rounding off our list is another Pixar gem, “Monsters, Inc.” This imaginative film takes us into the world of monsters, where best friends Mike and Sulley discover that laughter is more powerful than fear. With its clever humor, engaging story, and endearing characters, “Monsters, Inc.” is a true testament to the power of friendship and creativity.


G-rated movies are beloved by audiences of all ages for their timeless stories and unforgettable characters. These top 10 G-rated movies have left an indelible mark on the hearts of movie lovers worldwide and continue to be cherished for generations to come.

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What Are The Best Colors For Family Pictures Outside?

best colors for family pictures outside

Picture this: It’s a bright summer day, you’re wearing your best clothes, and your family has gathered together outside for some pictures.  Now, what color is best to wear?

This post is meant to give you an idea of the best colors for family pictures outside.  It can be tricky trying to figure out what colors will best show the best family pictures outside. Because there are so many different colors, it can be difficult to find out what will best show off your best features.

This is a hard question because every person has his or her best color for photos, which means that everyone should come up with their best colors for pictures outside.

Best colors for outside family pictures.

Navy, cream, and tan

A color scheme for family photos that works in any season is navy, cream, and tan, which are timeless and work well in any weather. The cream and navy colors go well with the spring pastels and bright greens. They also look good with the green grass and trees in a park.

Coral and navy

When it comes to color schemes, most of them have one or two bright colors mixed with one or two “neutral” colors. The outfit’s main color is coral. Navy, gray, white, and other neutral colors help to ground and balance the bright coral in this outfit. They also help to make the coral look less bright.

Wine, cream, and gold

If you want to take a holiday family picture, this color scheme will work well. When we think about holiday family photos, the colors red and green are often the first things that come to mind. For pictures of Christmas, go to the site. However, if you do plan to use them, a wine, cream, and gold color scheme will put you right in the Christmas spirit.

Pink, tan, and cream

The colors that people like the most are pink, cream, and tan. Photos of the family on the beach are good for. Here’s what you should wear on a trip with your family: for It is very simple and monochromatic. The soft, pale pink color of this family set is almost like a neutral. There are a lot of shades of tan and cream.

Peach, blue, and denim

It’s a good idea to use peach, blue, and denim in your family photos in the springtime. Peach goes well with the pastel-colored flowers that bloom in Northeast Ohio in the spring. As a neutral, jeans keep the outfit from becoming too bright with the new spring colors.

Red, white and blue

This blue, white, red, and blue color scheme feels right for a Fourth of July family picture. Because red is so attention-grabbing, it can be hard to work within photos because of this. I think it’s great for making eye-catching family portraits. If you want to use red in your color scheme, think about where your meeting will be. It would be best if the backdrop was neutral-colored, like at the beach or in city downtown. This color scheme is why even though there is a lot of greenery, your picture might have a Christmas feel.

Things to consider when picking the best color of clothes for family photos

The location:

As soon as you figure out which colors are best for the season, narrow them down to just a few based on where the shoot is taking place.

When it comes to urban themes, bright colors work well, but they don’t look good in a field or with trees and grass around them.

In the same way, don’t use pale pastels when you’re in front of a light background, such as the wall of a building or structure. This goes for dark backgrounds, too.

The colors of your home:

Look at the colors in the place where the photos will be shown. If all you see are muted and soft colors, there’s no need to be bold with your clothes. There is no doubt that the opposite is true, too.

The skin tone:

They look best with warm colors like brown and yellow and warm shades of red and orange and brown and yellow and orange and reddish-purple and reddish-purple and cream.

If you want to look good, don’t wear jewel tones or icy shades. Make sure you don’t wear orange and red near your skin.

Top tips to get the colors right for family pictures!

A color that doesn’t match one of your family members’ skin tones but you still want to stay in your chosen palette? Choose a top and pair it with a bottom from your chosen palette.

Consider looking at store displays for ideas. Typically, the windows show off the season’s most fashionable clothes, as well as the best colors in the clothes.

In order to add a little color to your neutral palette, have one member of the family wear a brighter shade, or even a different shade.

It’s important not to go overboard with your desire to add color.

With different textures and accessories, like belts and scarves, you can make the look even more interesting.

Instead of matching, try to add something to each other. This isn’t just true for colors, but also for different styles of clothes. So, if most of you are wearing jeans, add a dress or two to make things even.

As parents, it is important to choose clothes that are not only in the right colors but also the most comfortable. So you won’t have to deal with kids who are fidgety and angry when they want to undress.

Final thoughts

best colors for family pictures outside

When you are choosing the best colors for family pictures outside, it is best to look at what other people are wearing in the photographs. You do not want your group to look bland or have an entirely different color scheme from everyone else in the photos. This could cause confusion over who belongs with whom.

If you have a hard time picking the best colors for family pictures outside, maybe even the best colors for family photos in general take a look at the best color combinations for group photos.

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10 Best Dandruff Shampoo For Kids For A Dandruff-Free Scalp

best dandruff shampoo-image from pixabay by jackmac347
Do you have an itchy, flaky scalp? Due to their delicate scalps, young individuals are especially prone to dandruff. Even newborns occasionally develop dandruff.
Dandruff is not a major issue, but it can be embarrassing for both youngsters and adults. It’s best to address the problem while it’s still minor. An itchy, flaky scalp will certainly ruin your disposition, and you’ll want to avoid socializing as well! Here are some treatments that might help you deal with this condition.

Best Dandruff Shampoo For Kids

Tea tree oil has anti-dandruff effects that aid in the treatment of Scalp Psoriasis, Seborrheic Dermatitis, Eczema, and Psoriasis. It also has a pleasant scent and helps to remove dry scales from dandruff. These factors make it one of the best dandruff shampoo for kids.
Jojoba oil is excellent for people with sensitive scalps because of its non-irritating qualities. This mild, hypoallergenic shampoo incorporates jojoba extracts to moisturize your scalp all day long, preventing the development of fungus that causes dandruff. Its lovely scent may lift your spirits in no time.
Coconut milk is beneficial for your hair since it contains nutritious components, such as oat extracts and vitamin E. They help to keep the scalp hydrated. The shampoo lathers effectively and aids in the cleaning of dirty hair. It removes dirt, dust, perspiration, and other debris from your hair. Coconut milk also works well in combating dandruff as a result of its mild cleansing chemicals.
This combination includes natural extracts like oatmeal that aid in the treatment of dandruff or psoriasis-induced dryness, scaliness, and irritation. Its light scent will make your baby smile after his bath.

best dandruff shampoo for kids-image from pixabay by SocialButterflyMMG

best dandruff shampoo for kids-image from pixabay by SocialButterflyMMG

It’s great for babies with cradle caps since it may be applied every day to infants aged three months and older. It treats seborrheic dermatitis, skin rashes, and flaky scalp by restoring the skin’s pH balance.
This shampoo is ideal for you if your hair gets greasy quickly after a wash, or if you have dandruff and psoriasis. This includes antifungal and antiseptic chemicals found in neem and tea tree oil, which help to remove extra grime and oil from your scalp.
Ketoconazole is an anti-yeast ingredient in Nizoral, which combats dandruff on the scalp by preventing yeast from accumulating on the surface. It has a nice scent and can be used daily on children older than six months. Such properties make it the best dandruff shampoo for kids.
The natural components of this mild shampoo are especially beneficial for infants with mild to moderate dandruff issues. Because of the non-staining formulation, the blue-bottled bottle is ideal for babies.
The best thing about this combination is that you only pay for one bottle. This herbal anti-dandruff shampoo has a conditioner to keep the scalp healthy, flake-free, and free of dandruff.
ZPT-Gel is ideal for itchy, flaky scalps since its inclusion of a well-researched component called Coal Tar. This component slows down the rate of skin cell development in order to combat itching, inflammation, and scaling caused by dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis. It also has a refreshing scent that helps you unwind after a stressful day.

best shampoo-image from pixabay by Igorrovyannykov

best shampoo-image from pixabay by Igorrovyannykov

Factors to consider while choosing the best dandruff shampoo for kids


You may have a tight budget, or you might wish to invest in something that is best for your wallet. You can select from the finest dandruff shampoos for infants listed above depending on your needs and price range.


Children adore fragrant shampoos, but if they’re too powerful, they’ll get irritated after washing! Before purchasing it, be sure to smell it. If you have a baby at home who becomes irritated easily, choose mild fragrances that are more soothing on sensitive skin. Other possibilities include lavender or rosemary-scented shampoos, which combat dandruff. It also provides a relaxing environment for your child.


Instead of glass bottles, which are somewhat hefty and breakable, select a tube or pump bottle for your infant’s dandruff shampoos. The nicest thing about these bottles is that you may precisely dispense the necessary quantity for one use, saving product.

Natural ingredients

The most popular dandruff shampoos include ketoconazole, an antifungal agent, and tea tree oil extracts. This aids in the treatment of scalp infections, dryness, and flakiness. Al vera, almond extract, and other moisturizing substances are combined with therapeutic compounds such as ketoconazole to make the best-rated products.
If your kid has a cradle cap, for example, you’ll want to get the best anti-dandruff shampoo with conditioner. Such shampoos include ingredients like oatmeal extracts that moisturize and help eliminate cradle caps in a week.

The oiliness of the scalp:

It is best to use the finest anti-dandruff baby shampoo that includes substances like tea tree oil and salicylic acid. They have antimicrobial properties, which assist remove excessive oil from the skin. It doesn’t remove natural oils. Best antidandruff shampoo for dry scalps should include moisturizing and hydrating components.

Skin type

If your kid has dry skin, the best anti-dandruff baby shampoo should contain moisturizing components such as glycerin. If your kid’s hair is greasy, the best anti-dandruff shampoo for kids with tea tree oil or salicylic acid should be used. It’s important to buy a dandruff treatment that contains mild ingredients that are non-irritating. All of these finest anti-dandruff shampoos have been tested, so you can rest assured that they will not harm your child’s scalp or hair.
These shampoos, as the name suggests, contain therapeutic components such as tea tree oil, jojoba oil, oatmeal extracts, and more. Some of them even come with conditioners. If you’re not a fan of the conditioner, consider investing in a separate anti-dandruff treatment.
Do not use these shampoos on your baby’s scalp straight away because they might burn the skin and make it worse. Always dilute it with water before applying. Cleaning your child’s hair may be accomplished using mild baby shampoo. So, which dandruff shampoo for babies will you try? Please leave a comment below.
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